Mudslides Devastate Mayans in Guatemala- Published by the Washington Post, 10/10/05
By Krissah Williams
Washington Post Staff Writer
Tuesday, October 11, 2005; A12
PANABAJ, Guatemala, Oct. 10 -- With a machete in one hand, Candelaria Ramirez Tiney, 67, chopped at the mass of dried mud surrounding her small adobe house Monday, trying to salvage whatever she could before abandoning the village where two of her eight children had been swallowed up and lost five days before.
With the other hand, Ramirez held a cloth to her worn, toothless face to block out the smell of rotting flesh. Her traditional Mayan cotton skirt and dress, hand-woven of bright blue, purple and pink threads, was caked with mud.
Nearby, two black vultures waited on a field in this Mayan village where as many as 500 people, including entire families, are believed to have been buried alive early Wednesday when heavy rains following Hurricane Stan let loose an avalanche of mud, rocks and trees.
"Nothing like this has ever happened here before," said Ramirez, shaking her head and speaking in the Tzutujil language of her people. "I'm . . . too afraid to live here again."
In the places where her neighbors' homes had stood, there was nothing left, just a flat plain of mud covered by rocks, fallen trees and other debris that had tumbled down from three volcanoes surrounding the village. The survivors had already abandoned the search for their loved ones, and the area had been declared a mass grave.
The destruction of Panabaj, a traditional community of about 3,000 subsistence farmers in central Guatemala, is only the most recent tragedy inflicted on the village and other communities of indigenous Mayan people.
A cemetery called "The Park of Peace," where gravestones are now covered in mud, was built in this village years ago to commemorate the deaths of 13 Mayan inhabitants in an army massacre in 1990, during the country's 36-year civil war.
The war claimed the lives of more than 200,000 people, the vast majority of them Mayan civilians. The conflict left thousands of widows and orphans traumatized, according to Anita Isaacs, an associate professor of political science at Haverford College who visited Panabaj repeatedly to research the civil war destruction.
Now, the mudslides have left more families in tatters. Diego Chichom Ramirez, an official at the mayor's office in Santiago Atitlan, a nearby town, said the authorities have no idea what to do with the children who were orphaned after the mud swallowed their mothers and fathers.
In other cases, parents survived and their children perished. Candelaria Ramirez said the villagers were warned to leave before the torrents came, and she fled with many others to Santiago Atitlan, several miles away, and took refuge in a church. But her two grown daughters did not want to leave their homes. At 4 a.m. last Wednesday, she said, she could hear the roar as the giant wall of mud began to plunge downward on Panabaj.
For now, the survivors are living in shelters, churches and schools in Santiago Atitlan. Food is arriving regularly by boats from the other side of Lake Atitlan, and medicine has been flown in by helicopter.
But the roads leading to the highland village are still covered by as much as 10 feet of mud in some places. In Panabaj, rows of adobe bricks that were used in houses are strewn about like Legos in the mud. Metal pipes that held homes together are bent like straws. Ditches 10 feet deep have been carved where the earth was once level.
The Mayans have lived in Guatemala's highlands since ancient times. The demise of their civilization began when the Spaniards conquered Guatemala in the 16th century, turning the Mayans into slaves. Although the country later won its freedom, its indigenous people never recovered.
They are still among the nation's poorest residents, and in the 1980s they were also its most persecuted. Anti-government insurgents were based in the highlands, and authorities considered Mayan villages to be bases of rebel support. Under a succession of military rulers, hundreds of villages were destroyed and tens of thousands of people killed. The war ended with a peace accord in 1996.
"The people have suffered much," said Diego Ramirez, the official in Santiago Atitlan.The mayor of Panabaj, Diego Esquina, told the Associated Press on Monday that survivors did not want soldiers coming to the area to help them now, because the memories of the 1990 massacre were still vivid.
Rigoberta Menchu, a Mayan activist from Guatemala who won the Nobel Peace Prize for her work to bring attention to the plight of her people, said the destruction of Panabaj and other highland villages could erode the region's cherished culture.
"I am worried because we want to maintain the culture of the population, and specifically the use of their traditional clothing," she told La Prensa Grafica newspaper in Guatemala City. "Many people giving help are giving blue jeans."
Menchu said she was launching a campaign to ask that other Mayans donate women's blouses, called huipiles, and other traditional woven clothing.
The ancient Mayans buried their kings in elaborate tombs that still exist at sites such as Tikal and El Mirador. In modern times, Mayans have buried their dead in Roman Catholic ceremonies. But many of those who died in Panabaj last Wednesday will remain buried in the thick mountain mud.
"There's nothing we can do," said Diego Ramirez. "When you move the mud, it falls right back in place."
Guatemala stopt met zoeken naar dodenIn Guatemala zijn vooral de armere Maya-indianen het slachtoffer van de doortocht van de orkaan Stan.
In Panabaj, aan het idyllische Atitlan-meer, zijn 1.400 bewoners vermist. Reddingswerkers hebben het zoeken gisteren gestaakt. De kans dat onder de metershoge modderhopen na vijf dagen nog overlevenden gevonden zouden worden, was vrijwel nihil.
Rond het Atitlan-meer in Zuid-Guatemala leven duizenden Maya-indianen, volgens de eeuwenoude tradities van hun voorvaderen. Sinds gisteren weten zij dat zij hun doden nooit zullen kunnen begraven.
Ook in het aangrenzende Chiapas, in zuidelijk Mexico, is vooral de indiaanse bevolking het slachtoffer geworden van de orkaan Stan. De indianen zijn kwetsbaarder, omdat zij economisch zwakker zijn dan de mestiezen en vaak in armoedige omstandigheden leven.
,,De orkaan heeft vooral Zuid- en West-Guatemala getroffen, een gebied van 36.000 vierkante kilometer groot'', zegt Edmond Mulet, de ambassadeur van Guatemala in Brussel, in een telefoongesprek. ,,Dit is een tragedie voor de indiaanse bevolking in Guatemala, die ook al het zwaarst heeft geleden onder 36 jaar burgeroorlog.''
Een oud verwijt van de indianen aan de regering is dat die hen discrimineert en als tweederangsburgers behandelt. Ook nu klinkt dezelfde kritiek: de Guatemalteekse overheid zou de getroffen indianen in de kou laten staan. ,,De getroffen regio's zijn erg bergachtig en moeilijk bereikbaar'', zegt de ambassadeur. ,,De regering doet wat zij kan, maar de wegen en bruggen zijn nog niet hersteld. Guatemala heeft helikopters nodig.''
Officieel houdt Guatemala het op 652 doden, maar de duizenden vermisten zijn daar niet bij inbegrepen. De stad Santiago Atitlan gaat uit van 1.000 tot 1.500 doden. Reddingswerkers vrezen in werkelijkheid voor 2.000 slachtoffers, al zal wellicht nooit helemaal duidelijk worden hoeveel doden de orkaan Stan heeft gemaakt.
Bovendien vreest Guatemala wat nog komen zal. ,,Gisteren heeft het weer de hele dag zwaar geregend. Het tropische regenseizoen duurt nog tot begin november'', zegt ambassadeur Mulet, die wijst op de rampzalige economische gevolgen van de ramp. De indianenbevolking leeft van de landbouw, maar Stan heeft hele maïsvelden en bananenplantages weggeveegd. Ook grote delen van de veestapel zijn vernietigd; zeker 100.000 koeien zijn dood. ,,De schade wordt op 715 miljoen euro geraamd'', zegt de ambassadeur. ,,Je kan je wel voorstellen wat dat voor een arm land betekent.''
De VN schenken 22 miljoen dollar noodhulp, België heeft 200.000 euro vrijgemaakt.
Van onze redactrice Ine Roox (De Standaard)